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History of the National Weather Service

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September 24, 2017, 10:45:16 pm Psalm 51:17 says: The specific rule pertaining to the national anthem is found on pages A62-63 of the league rulebook. It states: “The National Anthem must be played prior to every NFL game, and all players must be on the sideline for the National Anthem. “During the National Anthem, players on the field and bench area should stand at attention, face the flag, hold helmets in their left hand, and refrain from talking. The home team should ensure that the American flag is in good condition. It should be pointed out to players and coaches that we continue to be judged by the public in this area of respect for the flag and our country. Failure to be on the field by the start of the National Anthem may result in discipline, such as fines, suspensions, and/or the forfeiture of draft choice(s) for violations of the above, including first offenses.”
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http://www.naturalnews.com/2017-08-11-new-fda-approved-hepatitis-b-vaccine-found-to-increase-heart-attack-risk-by-700.html
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Exodus 20:5  Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them: for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me;
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Psalm 51:17
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« on: September 12, 2017, 08:55:42 am »

https://www.weather.gov/timeline

The National Weather Service has its beginning in the early history of the United States. Weather always has been important to the citizenry of this country, and this was especially true during the 17th and 18th centuries. Weather also was important to many of the Founding Fathers. Colonial leaders who formed the path to independence of our country also were avid weather observers. Thomas Jefferson purchased a thermometer from a local Philadelphia merchant while in town for the adoption of the Declaration of Independence. He also purchased a barometer — one of the only ones in America at the time — a few days later from the same merchant. Incidentally, he noted that the high temperature in Philadelphia, Pa., on July 4, 1776 was 76 degrees. Jefferson made regular observations at Monticello from 1772-78, and participated in taking the first known simultaneous weather observations in America. George Washington also took regular observations; the last weather entry in his diary was made the day before he died.

During the early and mid-1800's, weather observation networks began to grow and expand across the United States. Although most basic meteorological instruments had existed for over 100 years, it was the telegraph that was largely responsible for the advancement of operational meteorology during the 19th century. With the advent of the telegraph, weather observations from distant points could be "rapidly" collected, plotted and analyzed at one location.



    1849: Smithsonian Institution supplies weather instruments to telegraph companies and establishes extensive observation network. Observations submitted by telegraph to the Smithsonian, where weather maps are created.

    By the end of 1849, 150 volunteers throughout the United States were reporting weather observations to the Smithsonian regularly. By 1860, 500 stations were furnishing daily telegraphic weather reports to the Washington Evening Star, and as the network grew, other existing systems were gradually absorbed, including several state weather services.

    1860: 500 stations are making regular observations, but work is interrupted by the Civil War.

    1869: Telegraph service, instituted in Cincinnati, began collecting weather data and producing weather charts.

    The ability to observe and display simultaneously observed weather data, through the use of the telegraph, quickly led to initial efforts toward the next logical advancement, the forecasting of weather. However, the ability to observe and forecast weather over much of the country, required considerable structure and organization, which could be provided through a government agency.

    1870: A Joint Congressional Resolution requiring the Secretary of War "to provide for taking meteorological observations at the military stations in the interior of the continent, and at other points in the States and Territories...and for giving notice on the northern lakes and on the seacoast, by magnetic telegraph and marine signals, of the approach and force of storms" was introduced. Congress passed the resolution and on February 9, 1870, President Ulysses S. Grant signed it into law. A new national weather service had been born within the U.S. Army Signal Service’s Division of Telegrams and Reports for the Benefit of Commerce that would affect the daily lives of most of the citizens of the United States through its forecasts and warnings for years to come.

    1870-1880: Gen. Albert J. Myer serves as chief signal officer, directing the new weather service.

    1880: Upon the death of Gen. Myer, Gen. William Babcock Hazen takes over as chief signal officer. He serves until his death in 1887.

    1887: Upon the death of Gen. Hazen, Maj. Gen. Adolphus Greely takes over as chief signal officer. He serves until his death in 1891.

    May 30, 1889: An earthen dam breaks near Johnstown, Pennsylvania. The flood kills 2,209 people and wrecks 1,880 homes and businesses.

    October 1, 1890: The weather service is first identified as a civilian agency when Congress, at the request of President Benjamin Harrison, passes an act transferring the meteorological responsibilities of the Signal Service to the newly-created U.S. Weather Bureau in the Department of Agriculture.

    A weather-sensitive sports event of that year: 15th running of the Kentucky Derby.

    1891: The secretary of agriculture directs R.G. Dyrenforth to carry out rain-making experiments by setting off explosions from balloons in the air.

    Weather Bureau becomes responsible for issuing flood warnings to the public; Telegraphic reports of stages of rivers were made at 26 places on the Mississippi and its tributaries, the Savannah and Potomac Rivers.

    Professor Mark W. Harrington becomes the first chief of the Weather Bureau. He serves until 1895.

    1894: William Eddy, using five kites to loft a self-recording thermometer, makes first observations of temperatures aloft.

    1895: Secretary of Agriculture J. Sterling Morton appoints Professor Willis Luther Moore chief of the Weather Bureau. Moore served until his resignation in 1913.

    1898: President William McKinley orders the Weather Bureau to establish a hurricane warning network in the West Indies.

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« Reply #1 on: September 12, 2017, 09:02:58 am »

https://www.scholastic.com/teachers/articles/teaching-content/meteorologists-answer-hurricane-questions/

Q: When was the first hurricane ever recorded by meteorologists? Where was it?
A:
The earliest records of hurricane encounters come from Christopher Columbus. He experienced the fringes of a hurricane in 1494, when he neared Hispaniola. Records in the early settlements in Virginia in the 1600s and 1700s talk of great hurricanes that caused the level of the Chesapeake Bay to rise 12 to 16 feet in what is known as the storm surge.

But these records did not come from meteorologists. Benjamin Franklin was one of the country's first meteorologists. Thomas Jefferson and George Washington also kept good weather records. The United States has kept track of hurricane paths since 1871. The Army Signal Corps monitored the weather until the birth of the U.S. Weather Bureau, which later became the National Weather Service in 1970. Back in the 1800s, much of our information came from ships that traveled to and from the Caribbean.

The first recorded hurricane in 1871 formed near the Florida Keys and moved west into Texas. Of the six storms that year, four of them affected Florida and Georgia. (Barbara McNaught Watson)
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« Reply #2 on: September 12, 2017, 10:32:29 am »

^^

    1900: Cable exchange of weather warnings and other weather information begins with Europe.

    September, 1900: A devastating hurricane strikes Galveston, Texas, killing more than 6,000 people. The wife of the Galveston Official-in-Charge Isaac Cline and one Weather Bureau employee and his wife are killed in the associated flooding. The Weather Bureau forecasts the storm four days earlier, but not the high tide.

    1901: Official three-day forecasts begin for the North Atlantic.

    At the Weather Bureau Conference in Milwaukee, Wis., Chief Willis Moore observed the Post Office Department was delivering slips of paper with daily forecasts, frost and cold-wave warnings, to everyone's door with the mail. The one disadvantage to the system was the mail carriers started their routes about 7:00 a.m. and that day's forecast was not issued until 10:00 a.m., so the previous night's forecasts were used.

    1902: The Marconi Company begins broadcasting Weather Bureau forecasts by wireless telegraphy to Cunard Line steamers.

    The Weather Bureau begins collecting flood damage statistics nationally.

    1903: Weather sensitive historic events: United States and Panama sign the Canal Treaty; the first automobile trip across the United States is completed from San Francisco to New York City; The Wright brothers make first powered airplane flight at Kill Devil Hill, N.C., after consultation with the Weather Bureau several years earlier for a suitable location to conduct their experiments.

    1904: The government begins using airplanes to conduct upper air atmospheric research.

    1905: The SS New York transmits the first wireless weather report received on ship at sea.

    1907: Weather sensitive historic event: Round-the-world cruise of U.S. "Great White Fleet" including 16 battleships and 12,000 men.

    1909: The Weather Bureau begins its program of free-rising balloon observations.

    1910: Weather Bureau begins issuing generalized weekly forecasts for agricultural planning; its River and Flood Division begins assessment of water available each season for irrigating the West.

    1911: The first transcontinental airplane flight, from New York City to Pasadena, Calif., by C.P. Rogers, in 87 hours and 4 minutes, air time, over a period of 18 days.

    1912: As a result of the Titanic disaster, an international ice patrol is established, conducted by the Coast Guard; first fire weather forecast issued.

    1913: Professor Charles F. Marvin serves as the new chief of the Weather Bureau, replacing Professor Moore. Marvin serves until his retirement in 1934.

    1914: An aerological section is established within the Weather Bureau to meet growing needs of aviation; first daily radiotelegraphy broadcast of agricultural forecasts by the University of North Dakota.

    1916: A Fire Weather Service is established, with all district forecast centers authorized to issue fire weather forecasts.

    The Weather Bureau's fire district forecast center started at Medford, Oregon.

    1917: Norwegian meteorologists begin experimenting with air mass analysis techniques which will revolutionize the practice of meteorology.

    1918: The Weather Bureau begins issuing bulletins and forecasts for domestic military flights and for new air mail routes.

    1919: Navy Aerological Service established on a permanent basis.

    First Transatlantic flight by U.S. Navy sea plane, with stops in Newfoundland, Azores and Lisbon.

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